Professional History of Robert D. Stephens


Robert Stephens is a retired Staff Scientist of General Motors R&D, Planning, and Fuel Cell Activities in Warren, MI. Robert's career included research into methods for storing H2 in nanomaterials, developing and using remote sensors for research into emissions, life cycle analyses of the environmental impacts of manufacturing processes and products, and the kinetics and mechanisms of atmospheric chemical reactions. Robert's work on remote sensing led to two patents and also led to a commercial system that was manufactured and sold under the brand name "Smog Dog". Robert is the author of over 40 published scientific reports, and has four patents. During the last year of his career, he served as a member of the Global Energy Systems group at GM monitoring a wide range of renewable energy options that have the potential to affect future greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. See a brief review of some of his favorite career efforts at: Projects and Accomplishments. Contact Robert at TheWorldinLight@aol-dot-com using the word "photos" in the subject line. All other email will land in a spam folder and wil not be seen or read.

Robert Stephens

Patents, Published Articles, Books and Other Milestones

 

2010: Activation of Metal Hydrides, US Patent #7,700,069, April 20, 2010.

 

2010: Activation of Metal Hydrides, US Patent #7,700,069, April 20, 2010.

 

2008: Retirement from GM, November 1, 2008.

 

2008: A Beginner's Guide to Macro Photography.

 

2008: A Macro View of My Garden.

 

2007: Defensive publication for a GPS-based system for improved efficiency of H2 storage systems for fuel cell vehicles.

 

2006: Patent Application: Sodium Alanate Hydrogen Storage Material.

 

2006: System for Sono-catalytic Production of Hydrogen, US Patent #7,141,216, November 28, 2006

 

2002 Co-winner of the Best Paper Award at the 2002 SAE Sustainability Conference in Graz, Austria, April, 2002

2000 Campbell Award winner for an outstanding contribution in the field of real-world vehicle exhaust emissions

 

1998: Device and Method for Measuring Temperature of Vehicle Exhaust, US Patent #5,797,682, April 25, 1998

 

1997: Optical Sensing Apparatus for Remotely Measuring Exhaust Gas Composition of Moving Motor Vehicles, US Patent #5,591,975, January 7, 1997

 

1996 Defensive publication award for a new approach to measure the reactivity of vehicle exhaust

 

1995 Submitted written testimony to the United States Senate on the effectiveness of remote sensing for identifying high emitting vehicles

 

1994 Plotted distribution of vehicle emissions in a new way. (Subsequently used and cited in scientific literature as the “Stephens Plot”)

 

1992 Organized and managed the worlds largest study of in-use vehicle exhaust emissions ever conducted (to date)

 

1989 Invented a remote sensor for measuring vehicle exhaust emissions

 

1985 Discovered evidence for a new class of chemical reactions involving OH(A2å+) with alkanes and chlorofluorocarbons

 

1984 Developed a novel technique for measuring electronic quenching rate constants

 

Publications (Internal and External Reports)

 

"Kinetic enhancement of hydrogen cycling in NaAlH4 by melt infusion into nanoporous carbon aerogel", Robert D. Stephens, Adam F. Gross, Sky L. Van Atta, John J. Vajo, and Frederick E. Pinkerton, Nanotechnology 20 (2009) 204018 pp 1-6.

 

Investigation of Cycling-Induced Performance Degradation of Sodium Alanates, Daniel Dedrick and Robert D. Stephens, CL-08/118/CES, September 15, 2008.

 

Kinetic Enhancement of Hydrogen Cycling in Sodium Alanate by Melt Infusion Into Nanoporous Carbon Aerogel, Robert D. Stephens, Richard L. Speer, Frederick E. Pinkerton, Martin Sl Meyer, Adam F. Gross, Sky L. Van Atta, John J. Vajo, CL-08-119CES, October 5, 2008.


The Technology Status of Concentrated Solar Power, Robert D. Stephens, October 14, 2008.

 

Hydride Chemistry in Nanoporous Scaffolds, R. Stephens, J. Vajo, A. Gross, R&D-10971, September 17, 2007.

 

Wall Pressure Exerted By Hydrogenation of Sodium Aluminum Hydride, Daniel Dedrick and Robert Stephens, CL-06/55/CES, April 26, 2006.

 

Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis of Equipment and Procedures Associated With High Quantity Sodium Alanate Production, Terry Johnson and Robert Stephens, CL-06/50/CES, March 10, 2006.

(Advisory and liaison role only)

 

The Performance of Intentionally Melted Sodium Alanate,Robert Stephens and Daniel Dedrick, CL-05/35/CES, August 30, 2005.

 

Hydride Station Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis, Mark Ekmann and Robert Stephens, CL-05/23/CES, March 24, 2005.

(Advisory and liaison role only)

 

Bioethanol (ethanol from waste cellulosic biomass) Production Processes at Iogen Corporation and Opportunities for GM Collaboration, Robert D. Stephens, 2002-85, August 13, 2002.

 

Environmental Sustainability Strategies and Initiatives at Honda, Robert D. Stephens, 2002-80, August 6, 2002.

 

Environmental Sustainability Strategies and Initiatives at Toyota, Robert D. Stephens, 2002-60, June 2, 2002.

 

Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium Conference on Climate Change and Transportation held on May 2, 2002 and Air Pollution as a Climate Forcing: A Workshop held April 29, 2002 - May 3, 2002, Robert D. Stephens, 2002-69, June 20, 2002.

 

Environmental Sustainability Strategies and Initiatives at Ford, Robert D. Stephens, 2002-50, May 28, 2002.

 

Environmental Sustainability Strategies and Initiatives at DCX, Robert D. Stephens, 2002-51, May 28, 2002.

 

SAE Environmental Sustainability Conference, April 8-10, 2002, Graz, Austria, Robert D. Stephens, 2002-41, May 2, 2002.

 

Hydrogen Production by Plasma Processing of Municipal and Other Wastes, Robert D. Stephens, 2003-16, April 29, 2002.

 

Life Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Casting Processes, Robert D. Stephens, Candace S. Wheeler, and Maria Pryor, SAE #2001-01-3726, Proceedings of the Environmental Sustainability Conference and Exhibition Land, Sea & Air Mobility, April 8, 2001, Graz, Austria. (Co-winner of best paper award).

 

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic and Steel Vehicle Fuel Tanks, Robert D. Stephens, Ronald L. Williams, Gregory A. Keoleian, Sabrina Spatari, and Robb Beal, Proceedings of the Automotive Engineers Total Life Cycle Conference, Graz, Austria, December 3, 1998, SAE 982224.

 

Application of Life Cycle Inventory Analysis to Fuel Tank System Design, Gregory A. Keoleian, Sabrina Spatari, Robb T. Beal, Robert D. Stephens, and Ronald L. Williams, Int. J. LCA 3 (1) 18-28 (1998).

 

A Technique for the Rapid Estimation of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Reactivity, Proceedings of the 8th CRC On-Road Emissions Workshop, April 20-22, 1998, San Diego, CA.

 

An Analysis of General Motors Late Model Year Vehicle CO Emissions as Measured by Remote Sensing, Robert D. Stephens, General Motors Research and Development Report HE-434, August, 1996.

 

Analysis of Remote Sensing Errors of Omission and Commission Under FTP Conditions, Robert D. Stephens, Steven H. Cadle, and Tim Z. Qian, J. Air and Waste Mgt. Assoc., 46: 510-516, June, 1996.

 

A Technique For the Rapid Estimation of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Reactivity, Robert D. Stephens, Research Disclosure, 1996/779.

 

Exhaust Hydrocarbon Reactivity of Vehicles Operated With Different Fuels and Simulated Failure Modes, Robert D. Stephens, General Motors Research and Development Center Publication R&D-8441, October 11, 1995.

 

The Applicability and Effectiveness of Remote Sensing For Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance, Robert D. Stephens, Testimony to the US Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, Clean Air, Wetlands, Private Property and Nuclear Safety Subcommittee, June 29, 1995.

 

Errors of Omission and Commission For the Detection of High Emitters During Well Defined FTP Operating Conditions, Robert D. Stephens, Douglas Hoffman, Kenneth McAlinden, Proceedings of the Fifth CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, April 3-5, 1995.

 

An Experimental Evaluation of Remote Sensing Based Hydrocarbon Measurements: A Comparison to FID Measurements, Robert D. Stephens, Patricia A. Mulawa, Michael T. Giles, Peter J. Groblicki, Steven H. Cadle, Kenneth T. Knapp, J. Air and Waste Mgt. Assoc., 46:148-158, Feb., 1996.

 

Remote Sensing Data and a Potential Model of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions, Robert D. Stephens, J. Air and Waste Mgt. Assoc.,44:1284-92, November, 1994.

 

An Analysis of Michigan and California CO Remote Sensing Measurements, Robert D. Stephens, Michael T. Giles, Kenneth McAlinden, Robert A. Gorse, Douglas Hoffman, and Rodger James, Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association/EPA International Conference:The Emission Inventory:Application and Improvement, Raleigh, NC, November 1-3, 1994.

 

Techniques For Improving the Accuracy of Nondispersive Infrared-Based Measurements of Complex Mixtures of Hydrocarbons, Robert D. Stephens and Gregory A. Dorais, General Motors Research and Development Center Report ER-417, October 21, 1994.

 

An Experimental Evaluation of Remote Sensing Based Hydrocarbon Measurements: A Comparison to FID Measurements, Robert D. Stephens, Patricia A. Mulawa, Michael T. Giles, Kenneth G. Kennedy, Peter J. Groblicki, Steven H. Cadle, John W. Duncan, Kenneth T. Knapp, CRC-APRAC Contract VE-11-4 Final Report, September, 1994.

 

A Decision Tree Approach To Data Validation For Remote Sensing Measurements of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions, Zhaogang Qian, Robert D. Stephens, Presentation at the 1994 AAAI Workshop On AI Technologies for Environmental Applications, July 31-Aug. 4, 1994, Seattle, WA.

 

Remote Sensing of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions, Steven H. Cadle and Robert D. Stephens, Env. Res. and Tech., 28, (1994), 258A-264A.

 

Analysis of Remote Sensing Errors of Omission and Commission Under FTP Conditions, Robert D. Stephens, Steven H. Cadle, and Tim Z. Qian, CRC-APRAC Contract VE-11-4 Final Report, April, 1994.

 

Real World Emissions Variability as Measured by Remote Sensors, Robert D. Stephens, Michael T. Giles, Peter J. Groblicki, Robert A. Gorse, Jr., Kenneth J. McAlinden, Douglas B. Hoffman, Rodger James, and Sam Smith, Proceedings of the Fourth CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 16-18, 1994

 

An Experimental Evaluation of the Accuracy of Remote Sensor Measurements of Hydrocarbons, Robert D. Stephens, Steven H. Cadle, Patricia A. Mulawa, Peter J. Groblicki, Kenneth G. Kennedy, Michael T. Giles, Kenneth T. Knapp, John W. Duncan, Proceedings of the Fourth CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 16-18, 1994.

 

Michigan Roadside Study: Analysis of Repairs on High Emission Vehicles, Kenneth J. McAlinden, James Butler, Robert A. Gorse, Douglas B. Hoffman, Peter J. Groblicki, Thomas Liberty, Robert D. Stephens, Proceedings of the Fourth CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, March 16-18, 1994.

 

Real World Emissions Variability as Measured by Remote Sensors, Robert D. Stephens, Michael T. Giles, Peter J. Groblicki, Robert A. Gorse, Jr., Kenneth J. McAlinden, Douglas B. Hoffman, Rodger James, and Sam Smith, SAE 940582 Presentation at the SAE International Congress and Exposition, Feb. 28-March 3, 1994, Detroit, MI.

 

The Michigan Remote Sensing Study: A Preliminary Review of Repair Induced Emissions Reductions, Robert D. Stephens, Thomas F. Liberty, Peter J. Groblicki, Robert A. Gorse, Jr., Kenneth J. McAlinden, Douglas B. Hoffman, Rodger James, and Sam Smith, Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association International Specialty Conference: The Emission Inventory: Perception and Reality, Oct. 18-20, 1993, Pasadena, CA.

 

Analysis of Remote Sensing Errors of Omission and Commission Under FTP Conditions, Robert D. Stephens, Steven H. Cadle, Tim Z. Qian, Proceedings of the Air and Waste Mgt. Association International Specialty Conference: The Emission Inventory: Perception and Reality, Oct. 18-20, 1993, Pasadena, CA.

 

Evaluation of Remote Sensing as a Tool for Measuring Vehicle Exhaust Emissions, Robert D. Stephens, Tim Qian, Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association. International Specialty Conference: Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Oct. 11-14, 1993, Atlanta, GA.

 

Feasibility Study For the Use of Remote Sensors to Detect High Emitting Vehicles, Final Report to the South Coast Air Quality Management District, contract no. R-C93024, S. H. Cadle, R. J. Countess, J. Kert, D. R. Lawson, N. W. Sorbo, and R. D. Stephens, December 22, 1992.

 

FTP Emissions Variability and the Relationship to Remote Sensing Data, Robert D. Stephens, Steven H. Cadle, Tim Qian, Proceedings of the Third Annual CRC-APRAC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, Dec. 1-3, 1992, San Diego, CA.

 

Remote Sensing Data and a Potential Model of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions, Robert D. Stephens, Proceedings of the 1992 SAE Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, October 19-22, 1992, San Francisco, CA.

 

Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Emissions Data from In-Use Closed-Loop Emission Control Cars During Fuel-Enriched Operating Modes, Robert D. Stephens, General Motors Research and Development Center Publication GMR-7691, June 9, 1992.

 

On-Road Remote Sensing of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Emissions During Several Vehicle Operating Conditions, Lowell Ashbaugh, Douglas R. Lawson, Gary A. Bishop, Paul L Guenther, Donald H. Stedman, Robert D. Stephens, Peter J. Groblicki, Jayendra S. Parikh, Brian J. Johnson, and Steve C. Huang, Proceedings of the AWMA/EPA Conference on PM10 Standards and Nontraditional Particulate Source Controls, Phoenix, AZ, January, 1992.

 

Remote Sensing Measurements of In-Use Vehicle Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Exhaust Emissions, Robert D. Stephens and Peter J. Groblicki, Proceedings of the AWMA/EPA International Specialty Conference: Emission Inventory Issues in the 1990’s, Durham, NC, September 9-12, 1991.

 

Remote Sensing Measurements of In-Use Vehicle Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Exhaust Emissions, Robert D. Stephens, Presentation at the 1991 SAE Government/Industry Meeting, May 15, 1991, and at the Joint Air and Waste Management Association/EPA Conference on Emission Inventory Issues in the 1990's, September 11, 1991.

 

GM Remote Sensing Studies, Robert D. Stephens, Presentation at the CRC-APRAC Remote Sensing of On-Road Vehicle Emissions, Los Angeles, CA, September 16,

1991.

 

Remote Sensing Measurements of Carbon Monoxide Emissions from On-Road Vehicles, Robert D. Stephens and Steven H. Cadle, J. Air Waste Manage., 41:39-46(1991).

 

Remote Sensing Measurements of Carbon Monoxide Emissions from On-Road Vehicles, Robert D. Stephens and Steven H. Cadle, Proceedings of the EPA/Air and Waste Management Association International Symposium: Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants, Raleigh, NC, May, 1990.

 

A Comparison of Infrared and Fluorometric Measurements of Gas-Phase Hydrogen Peroxide, Jerry D. Rogers, William A. Glasson, and Robert D. Stephens, General Motors Research and Development Center Report EV-337, April 28, 1989.

 

Kinetics of the Reaction of Hydroxyl Radicals with 2-(Dimethylamino)ethanol from 234-364K, Larry G. Anderson and Robert D. Stephens, Int. J. of Chem. Kinetics, Vol. 20, 103-110 (1988).

 

Absolute Infrared Intensities for F-113 and F-114 and an Assessment of Their Greenhouse Warming Potential Relative to Other Chlorofluorocarbons, Jerry D. Rogers and Robert D. Stephens, J. of Geophys. Res., Vol. 93 No. D3, 2423-2428, March 20, 1988.

 

Quenching of OH(A2 å+ ) by Alkanes and Chlorofluorocarbons at Room Temperature, Robert D. Stephens, J. of Phys. Chem., 1985, 89, 2630-2635.

 

OH(A2å+) Quenching By Alkanes, Robert D. Stephens, General Motors Research and Development Center Report EV-233, July 19, 1994.

 

Absolute Rate Constants for the Reaction of Hydroxyl Radicals with Ammonia from 297 to 364 K, Robert D. Stephens, J. of Phys. Chem., 1984, 88, 3308-3313.

 

Absolute Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH Radicals with Alkanes, Larry G. Anderson and Robert D. Stephens, presentation to 15th Informal Photochemistry Conference, Stanford, CA, June 29, 1982.

 

Absolute Rate Constants for the Reaction of O(3P) with NO in Ar from 237 to 397 K, Larry G. Anderson and Robert D. Stephens, J. of Photochemistry, 11 (1979) 293-295